Bibliography Introduction

While the analytics and narrative throughout the website are the author’s, credit for the factual foundations belongs with academic scholars and everyday history buffs, whose books and articles have enabled this exploration of the antebellum period. 

In a perfect world, the text throughout the website would include detailed cites and footnotes, recognizing the sources and origins behind all the writing, together with a detailed topical index.

However, realities of time and space have prohibited these worthy outcomes. As it is, the website has been well over a decade in the making, and is already of a length that even the most curious may find challenging.

Still, some basic recognition of source materials is required, and they fall readily into two major buckets, as related to the History Wing.

First, are the books in the author’s personal library, collected over some five decades and accessed for both pleasure and research? These are recapped in the Bibliography shown below. Several scholars, however, deserve special recognition.

 One is Professor Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., who served as General Editor on two works that proved invaluable to a simple understanding “what happened and when,” across the entire antebellum time frame.

  • The Almanac of American History (Bison Books, 1983) provides a date specific timetable of key events from Jamestown in 1607 to Ft. Sumter  in 1861.
  • The American President Series (Times Books, Henry Holt & Company) offers abbreviated (150-250 page) biographies of the men who led the nation from 1789 to 1861, written by a diverse range of historians. 

 Henry Mayer’s detailed examination of the life of William Lloyd Garrison, All On Fire (Norton, 1998), traces the role of the heroic white and black abolitionists --  hated across the North and South – in forcing the nation to re-open debate over the morality and future of slavery, a debate which led inexorably to the Civil War.

Professor Stephen Kantrowitz’s More Than Freedom (The Penguin Press, 2012) recounts the often overlooked role played by early “free blacks” in fighting to overcome racial stereotypes, assimilate themselves into a typically hostile white culture, reject re-colonization, and gradually inch their way toward  “citizenship.” 

Professor David Potter’s The Impending Crisis: 1848-1861 (Harper Torchbooks, 1976), was instrumental in provoking the inquiry into exactly “why the Civil War was fought” – beyond the usual superficial diagnoses of “pro vs. anti-slavery” and “federalism vs. states rights” differences between the regions.

Professor Eric Foner’s Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men (Oxford, 1970, 1995) delves into the mindsets of northern and western white men toward blacks – be they slave or freedmen – and how their racist biases were translated, and often sanitized,  by politicians into the Free Soil and then the Republican parties
Finally, Professor Roger Ransom’s Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation and the American Civil War (Cambridge, 1989), describes the shape of the American economy during the era, and the tensions developing between the slavery-dependent agriculture-centric model in the South and the diverse, increasingly industrialized, enterprises of the North.      

Beyond traditional reliance on physical books, the author was blessed throughout by accessing source materials – e.g. speeches, letters, data – and analyses on the nearly limitless library of the internet. Indeed this online museum would never have been completed absent a technology allowing an amateur historian to sit at a terminal and instantaneously access needed information.  

Within this amazing internet galaxy, a few sites must be acknowledged.

First is Wikipedia, which invariably can lay the groundwork for a deeper dive into all subjects of interest. The accuracy and quality of the facts stored in Wiki seem to be improving steadily, through its vast array of dedicated contributors.

The internet also provided much of the detailed data shown in regard to topics such as presidential and congressional election results, “modeled” trends in the national economy (e.g. nominal GDP per capita by administration), and the all-important shifts in the nation’s demographic landscape, as captured in the decennial U.S. Census.

Special mention belongs with Professors Louis Johnson and Samuel Williamson for their website Measuring Worth, which pieces together and attempts to model the performance of the American economy from 1789 forward.

The author was saved repeatedly in trying to crack the code on accessing data from the U.S. Census by user-friendly algorithms available through Duke University.  

Access to records of the day by day proceedings in the U.S. Congress proved helpful at various stages. These are available in several compilations: The Annals of Congress (1789-1824), The Register of Debates (1824-1837), and The Congressional  Globe (1833-1873). While challenging to explore, they are often unique in recapping the ayes and nays on critical pieces of legislation.

The internet was also the conduit to the extensive use of direct quotations which appear throughout the text, always indented, italicized, and attributed. By allowing the various actors on stage to “speak in their own voices” through these quotes, the author hopes to better capture the actual tenor of the entire antebellum era.

Turning now to the Photography Wing of the museum, inspiration for displaying the 2500+ images in the author’s personal collection came from a wide range of books and catalogues, assembled by others passionate about preserving a visual record of America’s past.

Appreciation for the scope of photography from the antebellum and Civil War eras begins with two amazing compendia, The Photographic History of the Civil War In Ten Volumes (1911) edited by the early film-maker, Francis Trevelyan Miller, and evolving into The Images of War 1861-1865 (1984), the six volume masterpiece edited by the prolific Professor, William C. Davis, and published by The National Historical Society.  

Many efforts have been made over time to capture and catalogue the soldiers who fought in the Civil War. Early classics include two books by the historian Ezra J. Warner III, Generals in Gray (1959) and Generals in Blue (1964), showing a single image of each man, accompanied by a brief biography. Generations of collectors have used these books to properly christen unidentified images with the “right name.”  
In 1991 William Davis edited The Confederate General, a six volume effort showing all known images for each soldier, along with more elaborate biographies.

William A. Albaugh’s initial Confederate Faces (1970) began the parade of books that expanded the published inventory of identified images, including both general officers and the “common soldiers.” The Faces concept was continued by Albaugh and by others, including the renowned collector, William Turner, and journalist, Ron Coddington, with his Faces of the Confederacy: An Album of Southern Soldiers and Their Stories (2009).  

The most ambitious examination of Union officers has rested with Roger Hunt, whose photographic memory for images is legendary among collectors. His published works include Brevet Brigadier Generals In Blue (1990) and the on-going Colonels In Blue series, beginning in 2001.

The notion of “journeys,” treating period images as historical documents and tying them to intriguing narratives about their origins and context , was pioneered by historian, William Frassinito, in his remarkable Gettysburg: A Journey In Time (1975). This work was followed by similar explorations of the Antietam battlefield, and a detailed social history on the town of Gettysburg itself.

In addition to books on the photographs, there are the photographs themselves, dug out of attics and albums by generations of “dealers” and made available for sale -- originally at annual conventions and through mailed catalogued, and later online, via personal websites and eBay, and various auctions houses (e.g. Cowans and Heritage).

The author’s contact with these dealers begins with the early civil war antiquarian, Henry Deeks of Massachusetts, and extends through a host of others whose fares have ended up in this Photo Gallery, among them Howard Norton, Cary Delery, Jeff Blake, Perry Frohne, Steve Meadows, Len Rosa, Mike Medhurst, Bill Whisler, John Sickles, Tom McAvoy, and others.       

While the above simply scratches the surface of the underpinnings for this website, it at least begins to share credit with those who have engaged and enlightened the author and made this website possible.

A more formal Bibliography follows below. It was prepared on Christmas Eve 2015 by Team Drane Shadle, including the author’s daughter, Monica, and her three children, Caroline, Walker and Audrey. Thanks again to them for their help.



Blockson, C. L. (1987). “The Underground Railroad: First-Person Narratives of Escapes to Freedom in the North.” New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press.

Foner, E. (2005). “Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

Horwitz, T. (2011). “Midnight Rising: John Brown and the Raid That Sparked the Civil War.” New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Kantrowitz, S. (2012). “More Than Freedom: Fighting for Black Citizenship in a White Republic, 1829-1889.” New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Mayer, H. (1998). “All on Fire: William Lloyd Garrison and the Abolition of Slavery.” New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

McGinty, B. (2009). “John Brown’s Trial.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Reynolds, D. S. (2005). “John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.


 Wright, R. E. (2008). “One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe.” New York: McGraw-Hill.


Bernard, J. (1990). “Journey Towards Freedom: The Story of Sojourner Truth.” New York, NY: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York.

Cramer, C. E. (1997). “Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860: A Sourcebook.” Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Franklin, J. H., & Schweninger, L. (1999). “Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Hochschild, A. (2006). “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves.” Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Johnson, C., Smith, P., & WGBH Series Research Team. (1998). “Africans in America: America’s Journey Through Slavery.” New York, NY: Harcourt Brace & Company.

 Lindsey, H. O. (1994). “A History of Black America.” Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books, Inc.

McPherson, J. M. (1991). “The Negro’s Civil War: How American Blacks Felt and Acted During the War for the Union.” New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Stauffer, J. (2008). “ Giants: The Powerful Lives of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln.” New York, NY: Twelve.

Wilkerson, I. (2010) “The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration.” New York, NY: Random House, Inc.


Foote, S. (1958). “The Civil War: A Narrative, Fort Sumter to Perryville.” New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

Freeman, D. S. (1947). “R. E. Lee: A Biography.” (Vol. 4). New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

McPherson, J. M. (1988). “Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Symonds, C. L. (1983.) “A Battlefield Atlas of the Civil War.” Annapolis, MD: The Nautical and Aviation Publishing Company of America.

Time-Life Books Editors (Eds.). (1991). “Echoes of Glory: Illustrated Atlas of the Civil War.” Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books.

Wagner, M. E., Gallagher, G. W., &  Finkelman, P. (Eds.). (2002). “The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.


Allen, D. (2014). “Our Declaration: A Reading of the Declaration of Independence in Defense of Equality.” New York, NY: Liveright Publishing Corporation.

Bowen, C.D. (1966), “Miracle at Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention, May to September 1787.” New York, NY. Book-Of-The-Month Club, Inc. Little, Brown and Company. 

Goldstone, L. (2005). “Dark Bargain: Slavery, Profits, and the Struggle for the Constitution.” New York, NY: Walker Publishing Company, Inc.

Isaacson, W. (2003). “Benjamin Franklin: An American Life.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Raphael, R. (2001). “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Founding Fathers and the Birth of Our Nation.” New York, NY: Alpha Books.


Fraser, S., & Gerstle, G. (2005). “Ruling America: A History of Wealth and Power in a Democracy.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Margot, R. A. (2000). “Wages and Labor Market in the United States, 1820-1860.” Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

North, D. C. (1966). “The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790-1860.” New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Ransom, R. L. (1995). “Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War.” New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Scheller, B. (2010). “Colonial New England on 5 Shillings a Day.” New York, NY: Thames & Hudson, Inc.


Leadbeater, C. W. (1998). “Freemasonry and Its Ancient Mystic Rites.” New York, NY: Gramercy Books.

Macoy, R. (1989). “A Dictionary of Freemasonry: A Compendium of Masonic History, Symbolism, Rituals, Literature, and Myth.” New York, NY: Bell Publishing Company.

Ridley, J. (2001). “The Freemason: A History of the World’s Most Powerful Secret Society.” New York, NY: Arcade Publishing, Inc.

Wallace-Murphy, T. (2006). “The Enigma of the Freemasons: Their History and Mystical Connections.” New York, NY: The Disinformation Company, Ltd.


Elting, J. R. (1988). “Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon and Grande Armée.” New York, NY: The Free Press.

Nofi, A. A. (1998). “The Waterloo Campaign June 1815.” Conshohocken, PA: Combined Publishing.


Langguth, A. J. (2010). “Driven West: Andrew Jackson and the Trail of Tears to the Civil War.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.


Albaugh III, W. A. (1993). “Confederate Faces: A Pictorial Review of the Individuals in the Confederate Armed Forces.” Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Company.
Allardice, B. S. (1995). “More Generals in Gray.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Davis, W. C. (Ed.). (1984). “The End of an Era: The Image of War, 1861-1865.” (Vol. 6). Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Davis, W. C., & Hoffman, J. (Eds.). (1991). “The Confederate General.” (Vol. 4). National Historical Society.

Frassanito, W. A. (1978). “Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America’s Bloodiest Day.” New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Hunt, R. D., & Brown, J. R. (1990). “Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue.” Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc.

Kunhardt, D. M., & Kunhardt, P. B. (Eds.). “Mathew Brady and His World.” Time-Life Books from Pictures in the Meserve Collection.

Miles, D. H. (Ed.). (1911). “The Photographic History of the Civil War in Ten Volumes: Poetry and Eloquence of Blue and Gray.” (Vol. 9). Springfield, MA: Patriot Publishing Company.

Turner, W. A. (1983). “Even More Confederate Faces.” Orange, VA:  Moss Publications.

Warner, E. J. (1986). “Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Warner, E. J. (1991). “Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Warner, E. J. (1986). “Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders.” Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.


Donald, D. H. (1981). “Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War.” Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Heidler, D. S., & Heidler, J. T. (2011). “Henry Clay: The Essential American.” New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

Johannsen, R. W. (1997). “Stephen A. Douglas.” Urbana, IL: The University of Illinois Press.

Peterson, M. D. (1987). “The Great Triumvirate: Webster, Clay, and Calhoun.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Trefousse, H. L. (2001). “Thaddeus Stevens: Nineteenth-Century Egalitarian.” Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.


Baker, J. H. (2004). “James Buchanan.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Eisenhower, J. S. D. (2008). “Zachary Taylor.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Finkelman, P. (2011). “Millard Fillmore.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Flexner, J. T. (1965). “George Washington: The Forge of Experience (1732-1775).” Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Flexner, J. T. (1968). “George Washington in the American Revolution (1775-1783).” Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Flexner, J. T. (1970). “George Washington and the New Nation (1783-1793).” Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Flexner, J. T. (1972). “George Washington: Anguish and Farewell (1793-1799).” Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.

Hart, G. (2005). “James Monroe.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Holt, M. F. (2010). “Franklin Pierce.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Larson, E. J. (2014). “The Return of George Washington, 1783-1789.” New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

May, G. (2008). “John Tyler.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

McCullough, D. (2001). “John Adams.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Meacham, J. (2009). “American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House.” New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

Merry, R. W. (2010). “A Country of Vast Designs: James K. Polk, The Mexican War, and the Conquest of the American Continent.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Remini, R. V. (2002). “John Quincy Adams.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Seigenthaler, J. (2003). “James K. Polk.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Smith, C. (2005). “Presidents: Every Question Answered, Everything You Could Possibly Want to Know About the Nation’s Chief Executives.” Irvington, NY: Hylas Publishing.

Widmer, T. (2005). “Martin Van Buren.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Wills, G. (2002). “James Madison.” A. M. Schlesinger, Jr. (Ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.

Kantor, M. (1975). “Valley Forge.” New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc.

Keegan, J. (1996). “Fields of Battle: The Wars for North America.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Lang, S. (2004). “British History for Dummies.” West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

McCullough, D. (2006). “1776.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Symonds, C. L. (1986). “A Battlefield Atlas of the American Revolution.” Annapolis, MD: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, Inc.


Foner, E. (1995). “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War.” Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Guelzo, A. C. (2008). “Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates That Defined America.” New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Holt, M. F. (1978). “The Political Crisis of the 1850s.” New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Leech, M. (1986). “Reveille in Washington.” New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc.

Oates, S. B. (1998). “The Whirlwind of War: Voices of the Storm, 1861-1865.” New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.

Potter, D. M. (1976). “The Impending Crisis: 1848-1861.” D. E. Fehrenbacher (Ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Puleo, S. (2012). “The Caning: The Assault that Drove America to Civil War.” Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, LLC.

Stampp, K. M. (1990). “America in 1857: A Nation on the Brink.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, C. V. (1968). “The Burden of Southern History.” (revised ed.). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.


Anbinder, T. (2002). “Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City Neighborhood That Invented Tap Dance, Stole Elections, and Became the World's Most Notorious Slum.“ New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Chesnut, M. B. (1982). “The Diary from Dixie.” B. A. Williams (Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Foner, E. (2010). “The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery.” New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Fox-Genovese, E., Genovese, E. (2008). “Slavery in White and Black: Class and Race in the Southern Slaveholders’ New World Order.” New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Horton, J. O., & Horton, L. E. (2006). “Slavery and the Making of America.” Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Manning, C. (2007). “What This Cruel War Was Over: Soldiers, Slavery, and the Civil War.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

McKivigan, J. R., & Snay, M. (Eds.). (1998). “Religion and the Antebellum Debate over Slavery.” Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.

Noll, M. A. (2006). “The Civil War as a Theological Crisis.” Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Winthrop, R. C. (1887). “Tribute to William Aiken, Ex-Governor of South Carolina, at the Annual Meeting of the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund.” Cambridge, MA: University Press.


Schlesinger, A. M., & Bowman, J. S. (Eds.). (1983). “The Almanac of American History.” New York, NY: The Putnam Publishing Group.


Borneman, W. R. (2010). “Rival Rails: The Race to Build America’s Greatest Transcontinental Railroad.” New York, NY: Random House, Inc.

Madsen, A. (2001). “John Jacob Astor: America’s First Multimillionaire.” New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Stiles, T. J. (2009). “The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.


Barbour, B. H., Coleman, W., Deverell, W., Edmonds, A. O., Nadaline, C., Nugent, W., O’Neal, B., Perrin, P., Price, B. B., & Shreve, B., “American West Chronicle.” Lincolnwood, IL: Publications International, Ltd.

Harrold, S. (2010). “Border War: Fighting over Slavery before the Civil War.” Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.

Rosen, F. (2005). “Gold! The Story of the 1848 Gold Rush and How It Shaped a Nation.” New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press.

Woodworth, S. E., (2010). “Manifest Destinies: America’s Westward Expansion and the Road to the Civil War.” New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

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